Neuroscience behind that perfect cup of morning coffee

Yi-Ting Wang (Tina) is a prospective neuroscientist at the starting point of her scientific career. She uses her little grey cellstrying to solve some of the 21st centurys most fascinating problems in Imperial College London. Like the entomologist in search of colourful butterflies, my attention has chased in the gardens of the grey matter cells with delicate and elegant shapes, the mysterious butterflies of the soul, whose beating of wings may one day reveal to us the secrets of the mind.’  -Santiago Ramon y Cajal

If you are an avid coffee drinker like me, the best way to kick a day off is brewing that one tasty cup of sweet-smelling morning coffee, or grab one at your favourite coffee shop on the way to the workplace. During the day, you probably need some more cups of coffee to keep you going. The active ingredient in coffee is caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world. How does the whole process actually work, and how does caffeine affect our brain? Lets reveal the secret of this magical brain fuel from a neuroscientific perspective.

How does caffeine act on our brain?

It’s normal to grow tired as the day progresses because our brains naturally secrete a molecule called adenosine. Briefly, adenosine influences attention, alertness, and sleep. Adenosine builds up in our brain and when it reaches a certain level, our body knows its bedtime. In simple words, caffeine hijacks this system by competing with adenosine for the receptors. By blocking the action of adenosine, we end up feeling more alert and awake (Ribeiro and Sebastião, 2010). It is worth noticing that considerable amount of research reported that coffee can improve cognitive performance and decrease the risk for neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinsons disease (PD) and Alzheimers disease (AD).

Coffee every day, keep doctors away?

Three different epidemiological studies performed in Spain (Jimenez-Jimenez et al., 1992), Germany (Hellenbrand et al., 1996) and Sweden (Fall et al., 1999) reported an inverse, dose-responsive relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of developing PD. Two meta-analyses also showed that the risk of developing PD decreased by 31% (Hernan et al., 2002) and 25% (Costa et al., 2010) respectively in coffee drinkers compared to non-coffee drinkers. However, a more recent case control study suggested only a weak inverse association between coffee intake and the risk of PD (van der Mark et al., 2014). Though the debate is still going on, experimental studies have identified a possible mechanism behind caffeines potential preventative role in the development of PD.

Classically the primary pathology of PD involves the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons that originate in the substantia nigra and project to the striatum. Striatum is a principal component of the basal ganglia. Common PD symptoms such as slow movement, tremors, and rigidity are resulted from the cell death in basal ganglia and their connecting pathways. Low dose of caffeine was shown to mainly antagonise adenosine A2A receptors. The blockade of A2A receptors stimulates dopaminergic D2 receptors and as a result increases motor activity and improves motor deficits in PD models (Fenu and Morelli, 1998), (Kuwana et al., 1999).

A wealth of studies suggested that regular and moderate coffee intake over a lifetime reduces the risk of developing AD. A study published in 2012 gathered preclinical and clinical evidence and found a protective role of caffeine against AD. Results showed that caffeine can reduce risk, or delay onset of dementia. The effect was particularly evident in mild cognitive impairment patients (Cao et al., 2012). Among the most prominent studies, a case-control study showed that caffeine consumption was inversely associated with AD development (Maia and de Mendonça, 2002). In CAIDE study, 1409 elderly were analysed after a 21 yearsfollow-up. Coffee consumption in midlife was shown to decrease the risk of AD and dementia, with the lowest risk (65% decrease) found in people who drank 35 cups/day (Eskelinen et al., 2009). Animal studies helped us identify the possible mechanisms behind coffees effects on AD risk. Dr. Gary Arendash and colleagues found that caffeine improved learning and memory ability of transgenic mice and reduced the concentration of β-amyloid and presenilin in the hippocampus, the main brain structure involved in memory (Arendash et al., 2006). Caffeine also showed to reduce inflammatory mediators, which is another possible explanation of why it could ameliorate AD progression (Arendash et al., 2009; Cao et al., 2009).

How much coffee can we drink?

We have discussed some effects of caffeine on the brain based on different research findings. However, so far most of the evidence for both benefits and adverse effects of caffeine were derived mainly from observational studies, which means we couldnt draw any conclusion of caffeines causal effect on brain function. This awaits further randomised-controlled studies to confirm. Over the last decade, health authorities around the world have concluded that coffee/caffeine consumption is not harmful at levels of 300-500 mg daily (around 3-5 cups of coffee) (Nehlig, 2016). Back to the question, how much can we drink? Just remember moderation is the key, and be a happy coffee drinker!

 

References

Arendash GW, Mori T, Cao C, Mamcarz M, Runfeldt M, Dickson A, Rezai-Zadeh K, Tane J, Citron BA, Lin X, Echeverria V, Potter H (2009) Caffeine reverses cognitive impairment and decreases brain amyloid-β levels in aged Alzheimers disease mice. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 17(3):661-80.

Arendash GW, Schleif W, Rezai-Zadeh K, Jackson EK, Zacharia LC, Cracchiolo JR, Shippy D, Tan J (2006) Caffeine protects Alzheimers mice against cognitive impairment and reduces brain β-amyloid production. Neuroscience 142(4):941-52.

Cao C, Cirrito JR, Lin X, Wang L, Verges DK, Dickson A, Mamcarz M, Zhang C, Mori T, Arendash GW, Holtzman DM, Potter H (2009) Caffeine suppresses amyloid-β levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimers disease transgenic mice. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 17(3):681-97.

Cao C, Loewenstein DA, Lin X, Zhang C, Wang L, Duara R, Wu Y, Giannini A, Bai G, Cai J, Greig M, Schofield E, Ashok R, Small B, Potter H, Arendash GW (2012) High blood caffeine levels in MCI linked to lack of progression to dementia. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 30(3):559-72.

Costa J, Lunet N, Santos C, Santos J, Vaz-Carneiro A (2010) Caffeine exposure and the risk of Parkinsons disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 20 Suppl 1:S221-38.

Eskelinen MH, Ngandu T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M (2009) Midlife coffee and tea drinking and the risk of late-life dementia: a population-based CAIDE study. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 16(1):85-91.

Fall PA, Fredrikson M, Axelson O, Granérus AK (1999) Nutritional and occupational factors influencing the risk of Parkinsons disease: a case-control study in southeastern Sweden. Movement Disorders 14(1):28-37.

Fenu S. and Morelli M (1998) Motor stimulant effects of caffeine in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats are dependent on previous stimulation of dopamine receptors: a different role of D1 and D2 receptors. The European Journal of Neuroscience 10(5):1878-84.

Hellenbrand W, Seidler A, Boeing H, Robra BP, Vieregge P, Nischan P, Joerg J, Oertel WH, Schneider E, Ulm G (1996) Diet and Parkinsons disease. I: A possible role for the past intake of specific foods. Results from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire in a case-control study. Neurology 47(3):636-43.

Hernán MA, Takkouche B, Caamaño-Isorna F, Gestal-Otero JJ (2002) A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinsons disease. Annals of Neurology 52(3):276-84.

Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Mateo D, Giménez-Roldan S (1992) Premorbid smoking, alcohol consumption, and coffee drinking habits in Parkinsons disease: a case-control study. Movement Disorders 7(4):339-44.

Kuwana Y, Shiozaki S, Kanda T, Kurokawa M, Koga K, Ochi M, Ikeda K, Kase H, Jackson MJ, Smith LA, Pearce RK, Jenner PG (1999) Antiparkinsonian activity of adenosine A2A antagonists in experimental models. Advances in Neurology, 80:121-3.

Maia L and de Mendonça A (2002) Does caffeine intake protect from Alzheimers disease? European Journal of Neurology 9(4):377-82.

Nehlig A (2016) Effects of coffee/caffeine on brain health and disease: What should I tell my patients? Practical Neurology 16(2):89-95.

Ribeiro JA and Sebastião AM (2010) Caffeine and adenosine. Journal of Alzheimers Disease 20 Suppl 1:S3-15.

van der Mark M, Nijssen PC, Vlaanderen J, Huss A, Mulleners WM, Sas AM, van Laar T, Kromhout H, Vermeulen R (2014) A Case-Control Study of the Protective Effect of Alcohol, Coffee, and Cigarette Consumption on Parkinson Disease Risk: Time-Since-Cessation Modifies the Effect of Tobacco Smoking. PLoS One 9(4):e95297.

Advanced reading

Fredholm BB, Bättig K, Holmén J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE (1999) Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacological Reviews 51(1):83-133.

0 comments for “Neuroscience behind that perfect cup of morning coffee

  1. AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks! A good amount of data!

    viagra before and after reviews of female viagra
    cheap viagra
    female use viagra – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Whoa many of awesome material!

    personel storys viagra viagra recipes
    buy viagra
    buy viagra online discount – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thank you, Good information!

    u 2241 viagra viagra stimulis
    viagra for women
    man on viagra – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely put, With thanks.

    over counter viagra sales buy viagra online url
    viagra without a doctors prescription
    buy online com phentermine viagra – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely voiced indeed! .

    viagra blog buy internet viagra
    generic viagra online
    viagra in kuwait – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    This is nicely expressed! !

    viagra side effects in women genic viagra
    viagra 100mg
    can viagra 100mg be dangerous – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    This is nicely said! !

    female infertility and viagra viagra alternatives sniff
    viagra pills
    clitoris hard using viagra – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You said it nicely.!

    where to get viagra viagra l477
    generic viagra
    walgreens viagra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    This is nicely put. .

    canadian viagra prices will viagra keep an erection
    viagra 100mg
    viagra samples questions and answers – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely put, Thank you.

    viagra on the net sell generic viagra without prescription
    viagra for women
    viagra hardon – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You actually explained that really well!

    vigorex or viagra viagra levitra cialis comparison
    viagra for women
    100mg tablets of viagra – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    With thanks. Loads of advice.

    viagra instructions for use cialis levitra market sales viagra
    viagra for women
    women’s viagra virginia – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks. I value it!

    mexican viagra drink new viagra commercial august 2010
    viagra 100mg
    viagra generic oregon – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Valuable content. Thanks a lot.

    viagra delivery tou days viagra hong
    generic viagra 100mg
    viagra prices united states – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Cheers. A good amount of posts!

    will viagra work on young males vitrectomy and viagra
    viagra without a doctor prescription
    pictures of genuine viagra box – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Regards, Ample knowledge!

    cheapest viagra in uk generic link viagra com zenegra
    viagra for women
    the use of viagra in women – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Effectively voiced truly. !

    new female viagra colbert report viagra within hours
    viagra online
    viagra picture – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Regards. Ample info!

    subaction showcomments viagra thanks watch does viagra contain arginine
    generic viagra 100mg
    viagra canada drug stor – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Cheers, Great information.

    safest online for generic viagra interactions of different medications with viagra
    buy viagra
    viagra from canad – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Excellent write ups. With thanks.

    viagra and valuim miracle watermelon pill instead of viagra
    generic viagra online
    sale of viagra in uk – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You actually mentioned it really well!

    mix regalis and viagra viagra and phentermine interaction
    buy viagra online
    vision loss and viagra – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You actually revealed it fantastically.

    list of controlled substances viagra buy viagra online canadian
    generic viagra online
    viagra free viagra find charles linskaill – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely put, Appreciate it!

    viagra paxil information on generic viagra
    generic viagra 100mg
    generic viagra online paypal – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You said it perfectly.!

    psa levels viagra buy viagra in ny
    viagra for women
    viagra us – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You said that really well.

    viagra and cataracks results of using viagra
    viagra pills
    buy viagra in hong kong – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Valuable tips. Thanks a lot.

    viagra soft tabs cheap bluthochdruck und viagra
    viagra without a doctors prescription
    pfizer viagra pharmacy – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks, Plenty of info.

    generic viagra by fedx viagra gay porn challenge
    viagra pills
    viagra buy online – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Fantastic stuff. Thanks.

    intervention grapefruit and viagra immunity to viagra
    viagra 100mg
    time-release viagra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Valuable advice. Cheers!

    does viagra increase stamina is viagra covered by maine care
    cheap viagra
    number of viagra prescriptions united states – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Fine stuff. Appreciate it!

    jokes birth viagra order viagra for less than $25
    generic viagra online
    viagra recreational – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Seriously many of wonderful information!

    the long and difficult 13-year viagra woman taking viagra
    generic viagra
    don’t mix viagra wih steroids photo – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Cheers, Plenty of data.

    safety of generic viagra a useing viagra
    viagra generic
    reliable 0nline viagra websites – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Many thanks. A good amount of knowledge.

    can i get viagra without prescription compare cialis viagra
    viagra online
    viagra kaufen – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Amazing info, Many thanks!

    viagra chemists mixing vicodin viagra
    viagra pills
    buy viagra in perth – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Info well utilized.!

    mexican viagra tequila generic form of viagra
    cheap viagra
    viagra edinburgh search cartoons charles – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You suggested this wonderfully.

    viagra doses prices com net org natures viagra
    viagra generic
    price on viagra – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks a lot! I enjoy this.

    ordering viagra mail illegal taking l-arginine along with viagra
    generic viagra 100mg
    is viagra really needed doctors adventures – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You have made your point quite clearly!.

    i doser viagra young viagra users
    buy viagra online
    drug class of viagra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You’ve made your point extremely clearly!.

    viagra drug interaction zoloft and viagra
    generic viagra
    viagra best use – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Info certainly taken!!

    viagra single dose free sample of viagra for $10
    viagra for sale uk
    ship free viagra sample – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Beneficial advice. Cheers.

    viagra proof can i get viagra without prescription
    buy viagra
    best price on viagra – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Incredible lots of superb data.

    viagra useage discount canadian pharmacy viagra cealis
    buy viagra online
    cialis vs viagra vs levitra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Incredible plenty of wonderful info!

    free online order viagra viagra shipped overnight
    viagra 100mg
    plaintiffs lawsuit on viagra 2010 – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely put. Thank you.

    playboy viagra directions for taking viagra
    generic viagra
    canadain online pharmacies viagra – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks a lot, Lots of information!

    viagra market can viagra cause peyronie’s disease
    generic viagra 100mg
    is shellfish like viagra – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Whoa a lot of superb info!

    viagra sleep exploitation dick on viagra
    generic viagra 100mg
    drug addicts viagra – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Perfectly expressed indeed. .

    buy viagra without prescription viagra how works
    buy viagra online
    generic viagra overnight delivery – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Fantastic info, Appreciate it!

    levitra buy levitra online viagra viagra smaple
    viagra pills
    prozac ssri viagra for women – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Wonderful stuff. Cheers!

    viagra and cataracks citrate meltabs and viagra
    viagra without a doctors prescription
    cheap generic viagra substitute – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Excellent material. Thanks.

    the affects of viagra taking too much viagra
    viagra without a doctor prescription
    personal lubricant plus viagra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely put, Appreciate it.

    mexican viagra viagra user expierences
    cheap viagra
    guaranteed cheapest viagra – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    With thanks! Plenty of information.

    subliminal viagra shareware viagra non prescription
    viagra online
    viagra alterna – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Wow all kinds of excellent tips!

    walmart viagra inexpensive viagra
    viagra online
    viagra blue big love – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Fantastic postings. Thanks a lot.

    female viagra pharmaceutical viagra pulmonary hypertension
    viagra online
    chipmunks viagra song lyrics – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks a lot, I like this.

    free sample viagra without prescription viagra in the philippines
    generic viagra 100mg
    compare viagra vs cialis – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks! I appreciate it!

    bob dole and viagra how to make viagra work better
    buy generic viagra
    viagra rrp australia cost – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You actually stated that adequately!

    viagra infection viagra pill spliting
    buy generic viagra
    viagra mtab – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You’ve made your position pretty clearly..

    buying viagra viagra 25
    generic viagra 100mg
    effects of viagra on youth – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    You actually explained this perfectly!

    viagra study with women generic overnight viagra
    viagra without a doctors prescription
    enhances viagra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Seriously quite a lot of useful info.

    australia viagra how much comments on viva viagra
    generic viagra online
    safe licensed online viagra – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Perfectly spoken truly. .

    viagra enhancements buy viagra in las vegas
    buy viagra
    viagra 999 – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thanks. Loads of advice!

    viagra molecule what pill works like viagra
    buy generic viagra
    online viagra in australia – https://genericviagramsl.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely put. With thanks.

    why viagra causes heartburn viagra toronto offices address
    buy generic viagra
    buy herbal viagra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Nicely put. Thank you!

    generick viagra erections while on viagra
    generic viagra 100mg
    herbal viagra uk – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Amazing stuff. Thank you.

    totaly free viagra most effective ways to use viagra
    generic viagra 100mg
    natrural viagra – https://genericviagrarcp.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • AndrewAttip says:
    Your comment is awaiting moderation.

    Thank you. I value it.

    viagra does not keep me hard health reform what abour viagra
    viagra 100mg
    viagra t shirt – https://genericviagrantx.com

    Davidgep
    TerenceElush
    Victorbof

    Reply
  • Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *