Tag: World AIDS Day 2017

World AIDS Day: Professor Robin Shattock on the elusive HIV vaccine

World AIDS Day takes place annually on 1 December as an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV and to show support for people living with HIV/AIDS.

To mark World AIDS Day 2017, we have published a series of blog posts to highlight the important and varied research that takes places at Imperial. Three experts from Faculty of Medicine share their interest in HIV/AIDS which spans from the elusive vaccine to the economics of the epidemic.


Where are we in the battle against HIV/AIDS?

The past thirty years have seen enormous gains. We’ve seen the development of highly effective therapy that today can ensure the health of an HIV positive individual for rest of their natural lifespan. We used to speak of HIV/AIDS as if they were the same thing, now you can be HIV positive and never develop AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). Globally over 18 million people are now receiving life-saving drugs, preventing millions of deaths each year. Treatment also dramatically reduces the risk of passing on the infection. Excitingly, recent studies have shown that taking a daily pill (known as pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP) can prevent people from contracting HIV infection and this is now being made available in the UK.

However, significant challenges lie ahead

Treatment is for life and is not a cure; we are currently unable to eradicate the virus once someone has been infected. As many as a third of individuals infected with HIV are unaware that they have contracted the virus and late diagnosis significantly impacts on the benefit of available treatments. While great strides have been made to make global treatment accessible, only half of those currently infected are accessing treatment and for every individual starting treatment, one or two people are newly infected. This means that the population requiring life-long medication will continue to expand with associated pressure on global financial resources and already stretched health systems. (more…)

World AIDS Day: Dr Katharina Hauck on the health economics of fighting HIV

Katharina Hauck speaking at the Annual Meeting 2017 of the World Economic Forum in Davos (Copyright by World Economic Forum / Sikarin Thanachaiary)

World AIDS Day takes place annually on 1 December as an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV and to show support for people living with HIV/AIDS.

To mark World AIDS Day 2017, we have published a series of blog posts to highlight the important and varied research that takes places at Imperial. Three experts from Faculty of Medicine share their interest in HIV/AIDS which spans from the elusive vaccine to the economics of the epidemic.


The role of an economist in the HIV epidemic

As an economist, my research on HIV takes a higher-level population view. We advise policy makers in governments and international organisations on the cost-effectiveness of preventive and treatment interventions in the countries most ravaged by HIV. By estimating the benefits and costs of interventions, we can identify the ones that promise greatest improvements in population health.

The largest community-randomised trial of the universal HIV test and treat strategy

For example, we are currently conducting an economic evaluation of HPTN071/PopART; the largest study on the impact of a package of testing and prevention interventions on new infections in Zambia and South Africa. We measure the benefits of treatment to HIV-infected individuals who are found and diagnosed earlier because of PopART, and we expect that the interventions will also prevent new infections. It’s tricky to estimate exactly how many individuals will be spared from getting infected in future, but we work with epidemiologists who use complex modelling to project the number of prevented infections into the future. (more…)

World AIDS Day: Professor Mark Bower on HIV-related cancers

World AIDS Day takes place annually on 1 December as an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV and to show support for people living with HIV/AIDS.

To mark World AIDS Day 2017, we have published a series of blog posts to highlight the important and varied research that takes places at Imperial. Three experts from Faculty of Medicine share their interest in HIV/AIDS which spans from the elusive vaccine to the economics of the epidemic.


Oncologist turned HIV expert

As a medical oncologist at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, I specialise in the treatment of HIV-related cancers at the National Centre for HIV Malignancy – Europe’s largest research and treatment institute for these cancers. Over the last 25 years, I have seen an astonishing improvement in the outcomes of people diagnosed with both HIV and cancer, so that patients under my care with most HIV associated cancers now have the same overall survival as HIV negative patients.

The population of people living with HIV is ageing

One less welcome finding in recent years is the rising number of non-AIDS defining cancers – cancers not previously associated with severe immunosuppression and AIDS – amongst people living with HIV. Overall, the risk of cancer rises with age, although the age-related risk of individual types of cancers varies. In the UK half of all cancers are diagnosed in people over the age of 70 years old. The combination of increasing age of people living with HIV and the rising rates of cancer with age, is reflected in the changing epidemiology of non-AIDS defining cancers amongst people living with HIV. This was first described in the US by Shiels in 2011 who reported a three-fold rise in the rates of non-AIDS defining cancers between 1991 and 2005, and by 2005, 60% of these cancers occurred in people over 50 years old. We have since described the same phenomenon at the National Centre for HIV Malignancy, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and in a pan-European cohort. (more…)