Leuka is a charity that supports life-saving research into the causes and treatment of leukaemia and other blood cancers. Funding from dedicated charities such as Leuka provides an important source of support which enables high-quality research programmes here at Imperial to develop and progress. In this post, four Imperial researchers write about the different ways in which Leuka has supported their work at the College.
Dr Nichola Cooper and Dr Andy Porter on lymphocyte mutations
Lymphocytes are immune cells designed to recognise and fight infections, as well as to seek and destroy cancer cells. In order to create the diversity required to recognise and kill all possible infections, lymphocytes undergo an elaborate diversification process involving changes to genes, such as rearrangement, mutation and selection.
Sometimes, diversification can produce lymphocytes that mistake the body’s own cells (self-cells) as invaders. To prevent such lymphocytes from killing self-cells, which would result in the immune system attacking its own healthy tissues (autoimmunity), another elaborate process has evolved that either kills these autoreactive lymphocytes, or keeps them in check through regulation.
Together these diversification and regulatory processes allow lymphocytes to distinguish between harmful infections and the body’s own vital cells, involving many different genes. Defects in these genes, called mutations, can lead to reduced immunity, autoimmunity or uncontrolled reproduction of lymphocytes resulting in cancerous immune cells (lymphoma). (more…)
Dr (John) Tregoning and Dr (Charlie) Tregoning discuss roadblocks and solutions to equality in childcare.
We have as a couple, tried and sometimes succeeded but most often failed to share parenting fairly. Drawing from our own experience and a very shallow skim read of how to books, here are what we consider to be some of the major problems to equality at home as two working parents and some possible solutions. This is not to say every parent should go back to work; do what is best for your own family, but remember to be honest with yourself about what you really want and include yourself in the ‘what is best for my family’ calculation.
What society wants
Since the introduction of split parental leave in the UK in 2015, only 1% of fathers have taken it (based on 2015/16 figures). Why is this? Societal expectations are the major barrier to equality in childcare (in 2014 – 33% of people thought mums should stay at home compared to essentially 0% who thought dads should stay home: the flipside 73% thought dads should work full time and 28% thought mums should work full time – but only after the kids go to school). Going against the societal norm is tricky and requires reserves of energy, time and self-belief that you are doing the right thing. When the right thing is also difficult and financially unrewarding these reserves can be depleted, eroding your will. (more…)
Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disease in the world. It is estimated that the society costs associated with smoking are approximately ₤12.9 billion a year, including the NHS cost of treating smoking related diseases and loss of productivity.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major diseases caused by smoking. The disease ranks third among the leading causes of death worldwide. Around 1.2 million Britons suffer from the disease (Source: British Lung Foundation). The usual clinical picture is that of a smoker with symptoms that include shortness of breath and chronic cough. The muscle lab team at the Royal Brompton Hospital’s BRU, led by Professor Michael Polkey and Dr Nicholas Hopkinson is looking at different ways to improve COPD care, and at the different mechanisms by which interventions improve patient outcomes in the disease.
In recent years, it has been discovered that the negative consequences of the pulmonary disease are not just limited to within the rib cage. The wider effects of the disease on multiple body systems has a large and solid evidence base to support it. More than half of COPD patients suffer simultaneously from at least two other conditions known to often occur alongside the disease (so-called ‘comorbid’ conditions); the presence of which is commonly used as an indication of disease severity (1). The disease burden usually takes its toll on the patients’ quality of life, daily physical activities and social interactions. (more…)